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Get Started With Freebsd 10 1

Introduction

FreeBSD is an obtain, high performance directing system that is fit for a show of server roles. In this lead, we will cover some basic information about how to get started with a freebsd server.

Step One Log In with SSH

The first stride you need to take to start configuring your FreeBSD server is to log in.

On F(x) data cloud, you must give a public SSH important when creating a freebsd server. This important is increased to the server example, allowing you to securely login from your environment computer using the associated independent important. To learn more about how to use SSH keys with FreeBSD on F(x) data cloud, follow this lead.

To login to your server, you will need to know your server's public IP addresses. For F(x) data cloud machines, you can find this information in the regulate body. The important user account accessible on FreeBSD servers created through F(x) data cloud is labelled freebsd. This user account is configured with sudo rights, allowing you to finish administrative tasks.

To log into your FreeBSD server, use the ssh regulate. You will need to choose the freebsd user account along with your server's public IP addresses:

ssh [email protected]server_IP_address

You should be automatically authenticated and logged in. You will be dropped into a control line interface.

Changing the tcsh Shell Prompt and Defaults (Optional)

When you are logged in, you will be shown with a very minimal control prompt that looks like this:

>

This is the default prompt for tcsh, the grade control line shell in FreeBSD. In order to assist us be lied within the filesystem as we move about, we will implement a more helpful prompt by adjusting our shell's configuration file.

an instance configuration file is included in our filesystem. We will copy it into our environment directory so that we can adjust it as we wish:

cp /usr/share/skel/dot.cshrc ~/.cshrc

After the file has been written into our environment directory, we can edit it. The vi editor is included on the system by default. If you want an easy editor, you can strive the ee editor:

vi ~/.cshrc

The file includes some reasonable failures, including a more structural prompt. Some locations you might want to change are the setenv arrivals:

. . .

setenv  editor  vi
setenv  PAGER   more

. . .

If you are not acquainted with the vi editor and would like a simple editing environment, you should change the editor environmental variable to something like ee. Most users will want to change the PAGER to less instead of more. This will allow you to scroll up and down in man pages without moving the pager:

setenv  editor  ee
setenv  PAGER   less

The other symbol that we should increase to this configuration file is a block of code that will correctly map some of our device keys inside the tcsh session. Without these lines, "Delete" and other keys will not work correctly. This information is found on this page maintained by Anne Baretta. At the bottom of the file, copy and composition these lines:

if ($term == "xterm" || $term == "vt100" \
            || $term == "vt102" || $term !~ "con*") then
          # bind keypad keys for console, vt100, vt102, xterm
          bindkey "\e[1~" beginning-of-line  # Home
          bindkey "\e[7~" beginning-of-line  # Home rxvt
          bindkey "\e[2~" overwrite-mode     # Ins
          bindkey "\e[3~" delete-char        # Delete
          bindkey "\e[4~" end-of-line        # End
          bindkey "\e[8~" end-of-line        # End rxvt
endif

When you are completed , save and close the file.

To make your actual session reflect these actions immediately, you can source the file now:

source ~/.cshrc

Your prompt should immediately change to look something like this:

[email protected]hostname:~ %

It might not be immediately obvious, but the "Home", "Insert", "Delete", and "End" keys also work as expected now.

One action to note at this point is that if you are using the tcsh or csh shells, you will need to kill the material regulate whenever any actions are made that may affect the executable way. communal scenarios where this may happen are when installing or uninstalling applications.

After installing apps, you may need to symbol this in order for the shell to find the brand-new application records:

material

Changing the Default Shell (Optional)

The above configuration gives you a fairly good tcsh environment. If you are more acquainted with the bash shell and would prefer to use that as your default shell, you can easily make that adjustment.

First, you need to install the bash shell by writing :

sudo pkg install bash

After the installation is finish, we need to increase a line to our /etc/fstab file to attach the file-descriptor file system, which is needed by bash. You can do this easily by writing :

sudo sh -c 'echo "fdesc /dev/fd fdescfs rw 0 0" >> /etc/fstab'

This will increase the necessary line to the end of your /etc/fstab file. Afterwards, we can attach the filesystem by writing :

sudo mount -a

This will attach the filesystem, allowing us to begin bash. You can do this by writing :

bash

To change your default shell to bash, you can symbol:

sudo chsh -s /usr/local/bin/bash freebsd

The next moment you log in, the bash shell will be started automatically instead of the tcsh.

If you wish to change the default pager or editor in the bash shell, you can do so in a file labelled ~/.bash_profile. This will not exist by default, so we will need to create it:

vi ~/.bash_profile

Inside, to change the default pager or editor, you can increase your actions like this:

export PAGER=less
export editor=vi

You can make many more modifications if you wish. Save and close the file when you are completed .

To implement your actions immediately, source the file:

source ~/.bash_profile

Set a Root Password (Optional)

By default, FreeBSD servers do not allow ssh logins for the root account. On F(x) data cloud, this contract has been accessory to tell users to log in with the freebsd account.

With SSH accesses locked to the root user account, it is relatively fail-safe to set a root account password. While you will not be able to use this to log in through SSH, if you ever need to log in through the F(x) data cloud web console, you can use this password to log into root.

To set a root password, symbol:

sudo passwd

You will be requested to specify and confirm a password for the root account. As mentioned above, you still won't be able to use this for SSH authentication (this is a security preference), but you will be able to use it to log in through the F(x) data cloud console.

depression the "Console Access" badge in the upper-right corner of your machine's page to bring up the web console:

F(x) data cloud web console

If you select not to set a password and you get locked out of your server (for example if you accidentally set overly restrictive firewall rules), you can always set one later by booting your machine into solo user method. We have a govern that shows you how to do that here.

Conclusion

By now, you should know how to log into a freebsd server and how to set up a reasonable shell environment. a good next stride is to finish some extra recommended stages for brand-new FreeBSD 10.1 servers.

Afterwards, there are many non-identical directions you can go. Some famous preferences are:

Once you become acquainted with FreeBSD and configure it to your needs, you will be able to take merit of its trait, security, and performance.

Reference: digitalocean